A phoneme is a discrete unit of sound. One of the things we can do to tell when one phoneme ends and another begins is to pronounce words slowly and feel your mouth move. For instance, when you pronounce a word and your tongue is at the top of your mouth and then it moves to the bottom of your mouth, you're switching between phonemes.
Remember, phonemes are sounds, not letters. For instance, when pronouncing "tomato":
I say "T AX M EY T OW"
You say "T AX M AA T OW"
Consonants generally reflect the way they're written more than vowels, but there are some exceptions. For instance, "butter":
B AH DX AXR, not B AH T AXR
Next, we're going to look at adding foreign words to your applications.